Unit 03 :
Architecture and Buildings



Let’s learn about different kinds of architecture and buildings!

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Part 1

1. apartment /əˈpɑːrt.mənt/
a set of rooms for living in, especially on one floor of a building

They have six luxury apartments for sale.

2. dormitory /ˈdɔːr.mə.tɔːr.i/
a large room containing many beds, for example in a boarding school

3. condominium /ˌkɑːn.dəˈmɪn.i.əm/

an apartment in a condominium

4. townhouse /ˈtaʊn.haʊs/
a house that is joined to another house

5. cabin /ˈkæb.ɪn/
a small, simple house made of wood

a log cabin

6. mansion /ˈmæn.ʃən/
a very large, expensive house

The street is lined with enormous mansions where the rich and famous live.

7. duplex /ˈduː.pleks/
a set of rooms for living in that are on two floors of a building

8. farmhouse /ˈfɑːrm.haʊs/

the main house on a farm where the farmer lives

9. chalet /ˈʃæl.eɪ/
a small wooden house found in mountain areas, especially in Switzerland, or a house built in a similar style, especially one used by people on holiday

10. villa /ˈvɪl.ə/
a house, usually in the countryside or near the sea, especially in southern Europe, and often one that people can rent for a holiday

They have a villa in Spain.

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Exercise 1

Describe to your tutor what you see in these pictures.

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Part 2

11. construction /kənˈstrʌk.ʃən/
a building

What’s that concrete and metal construction over there?

12. skyscraper /ˈskaɪˌskreɪ.pɚ/
a very tall modern building, usually in a city

13. habitation /ˌhæb.əˈteɪ.ʃən/
the act of living in a building

unfit for human habitation

14. landscape /ˈlænd.skeɪp/
to change the appearance of an area of land, especially next to a building or road so that it looks more like natural countryside

15. architect /ˈɑːr.kə.tekt/
a person whose job is to design new buildings and make certain that they are built correctly

16. interior design /ɪnˌtɪr.i.ɚ dɪˈzaɪn/
the art of planning the decoration of the inside of a building such as a house or office

17. aesthetics /esˈθet̬.ɪks/
the formal study of art, especially in relation to the idea of beauty

18. magnificent /mæɡˈnɪf.ə.sənt/
very good, beautiful, or deserving to be admired

They live in a magnificent Tudor house.

19. spectacular /spekˈtæk.jə.lɚ/
very exciting to look at

There was a spectacular sunset last night.

20. feng shui /ˌfʊŋ ˈʃweɪ/

an ancient Chinese belief that the way your house is built or the way that you arrange objects affects your success, health, and happiness

It’s good feng shui to have a loving animal in your home.

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Exercise 2

Match the correct meaning to each vocabulary.

1. skyscraper__   2. construction__  3. farmhouse__  4. townhouse__   5. habitation__

a) a building

b) a very tall modern building, usually in a city

c) the act of living in a building

d) the main house on a farm where the farmer lives

e) a house that is joined to another house

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Part 3

21. blueprint /ˈbluː.prɪnt/
a photographic copy of an early plan for a building or machine

22. horizontal /ˌhɔːr.ɪˈzɑːn.t̬əl/
parallel to the ground or to the bottom or top edge of something
a horizontal line, surface, or position

Rotate it slowly from the horizontal into a vertical position.

23. vertical /ˈvɝː.t̬ə.kəl/
standing or pointing straight up or at an angle of 90° to a horizontal surface or line
a vertical line, surface, or position

In a two-stage operation, the steel structure will be raised to the vertical.

24. cement /səˈment/
a grey powder that is mixed with water and sand to make mortar or with water, sand, and small stones to make concrete
to put cement on a surface or stick things together using cement

a bag of cement

25. steel /stiːl/
a strong metal that is a mixture of iron and carbon, used for making things that need a strong structure, especially vehicles and buildings

steel girders/rods/struts

26. rebar /ˈriː.bɑːr/
steel in the form of bars or a mesh (= wires that cross over each other), put inside concrete to make it stronger

27. minimalistic /ˌmɪn.ə.məˈlɪs.tɪk/
using the smallest range of materials and colors possible, and only very simple shapes or forms

28. luxurious /lʌɡˈʒʊr.i.əs/
very comfortable and expensive

They have a very luxurious house.

29. contemporary /kənˈtem.pə.rer.i/
existing or happening now

30. baroque /bəˈrɑːk/
relating to the heavily decorated style in buildings, art, and music that was popular in Europe in the 17th century and the early part of the 18th century

baroque architecture/painters

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Exercise 3

Discuss the questions with your tutor.

  1. Talk about the last time you visited a famous building or monument. What was it? How did it look?

  2. Describe your dream house.