One in three children 'exposed to lead' globally

 Upper- advanced
2020/07/31  14:53

Today's Vocabulary

1.lead (n ) 
graphite used as the part of a pencil that makes a mark

2. irreversible (adj) 
not possible to change;
 impossible to return to a previous condition

3. culprit (n)
a fact or situation that is the reason for something bad happening 


 4.furnaces (n)
a container that is heated  to a very high temperature , so that substances that are put inside it, such as metal, will melt or burn



5. spew (v) 
to flow or let
 out in large  amounts


6. leached (v)   
to come out of or be removed  from another substance. esp. dirt by passing water through it 

One in three children 'exposed to lead' globally

Vehicle batteries prime culprit

“Vehicles in low and middle-income countries have tripled since 2000 and that has led to a graphic rise in lead acid battery recycling, often in an unsafe way,” Dr Nicholas Rees, one of the report’s authors, told the BBC.

“Unregulated and often illegal recycling operations break open battery cases, spilling acid and lead dust onto the ground, and [there is] smelt lead in open-air furnaces that spew toxic fumes and dust that contaminate surrounding neighbourhoods.”

Why are children vulnerable?

Experts say children’s intake of food, liquid and air is up to five times more than that of adults, if the body-weight ratio is compared.

“That means they can absorb more of this potent neurotoxin if it has leached into the soil and water or has spread in the air where the child is,” says the report.

It adds that babies and children under five are at high risk, because their brains can be damaged even before they get to fully develop, leading to lifelong neurological, cognitive and physical impairment.

“Lead is a potent neurotoxin that, with even low-level lead exposure, is associated with a reduction in IQ scores, shortened attention spans, and potentially violent – and even criminal – behaviour later in life.”


  1. What are the negative effects of lead in children?
  2. What are the negative effects of lead in the environment?

“ Water from clay is much more wholesome than that which is conducted through lead pipes, because lead is found to be harmful for the reason that white lead is derived from it, and this is said to be harmful to the human system.”